Vacations in Corporate America can be difficult to navigate. Even in more casual settings, corporate culture is very hierarchical and more senior professionals are going to get priority when it comes to scheduling adjustments.
Effectively taking a vacation starts with your work product and your work brand. The first is a matter of doing good work and working hard. The second is a matter of being known as a hard worker who does good work.
Once you are known to be a hard worker, the vacation will seem "earned" or "deserved".
The next step is providing notice. I notify my team about my vacation days by email blocks, i.e. "These are my days for August, September, and October." These days include anything from long weekends to full length trips abroad.